Self Treatment of Common Illnesses & Accidents
Many common aches and pains can be simply treated at home without the need to consult a doctor.
Apply large quantities of cold water to the affected area as soon a possible and maintain this until the pain subsides. This may take as long as 15 minutes! If the skin is unbroken but blistered, apply a loose, dry dressing. If the burn is larger that four of five inches in diameter or if the skin is broken, consult your doctor as soon as possible.
Even in this day and age there is still no magic cure for the common cold. Go to bed, take plenty of drinks. If you have a headache or are feverish, take aspirin or paracetamol. Do not bother to take antibiotics as these will have no effect
Most attacks are not serious and are usually caused by indigestion or wind. A hot water bottle will often relieve the symptoms and, in the case of indigestion, a teaspoon of bicarbonate of soda in half a glass of water will help.
If the pain lasts for longer than eight hours or increases in intensity you should consult your doctor.
Treat with a cold compress, containing ice if possible, for 15 to 30 minutes to reduce the swelling. Then apply, firmly, a crepe bandage and give the sprain plenty of rest until all discomfort has subsided.
Further strain will inevitably lead to further swelling and a longer recovery period.
Sit in a chair, lean forward with your mouth open, and pinch your nose just below the bone for approximately 10 minutes, by which time the bleeding should have stopped. Avoid hot drinks or hot food for 24 hours. If symptoms persist, consult your doctor.
Minor Cuts And Grazes
Wash the wound thoroughly with water and a little soap. To stop bleeding apply a clean handkerchief or dressing firmly to the wound for about five minutes. Cover with a clean dry dressing.
Treat as for other burns with cold water to remove the heat. Calamine lotion will relieve the irritation whilst paracetamol will also help.
Children are particularly susceptible to sunburn and great care should be taken to avoid overexposure to the harmful effects of the sun.
Insect Bites And Stings
Antihistamine tablets can be obtained from the chemist without prescription and will usually relieve most symptoms.
Note: bee stings should be scraped away rather than ‘plucked’ in order to avoid squeezing the contents of the venom sac into the wound.
These creatures, contrary to popular belief, prefer clean hair and are, therefore, not a sign of poor personal hygiene. Medicated head lotion can be obtained from the chemist without prescription
On the first day a rash appears as small red patches about 3-4mm across. Within a few hours, small blisters appear in the centre of these patches. During the next three or four days further patches will appear and the earlier ones will turn 'crusty' and fall off.
- Calamine lotion may be applied to soothe the often severe itching
- Cool baths may also help.
- The most infectious period is from two or three days before the rash appears and up to five days after this date. Children may return to school as soon as the last 'crusts' have dropped off.
German Measles (Rubella)
The rash appears during the first day and usually covers the body, arms and legs in small pink patches about 2-4mm across and doesn't itch. No other symptoms are usually present apart from occasional aching joints.
- It is infectious from two days before the rash appears, until the rash disappears in about four or five days from that date.
- The only danger is to unborn babies and, therefore, it is important that all contacts are informed in order that anyone who may be pregnant can contact their doctor.
- Immunisation can prevent this disease.
The rash is blotchy and red and appears on the face and body around the fourth day of illness. It is at its most infectious from two or three days before the rash appears until eight to ten days after that date
- Immunisation can prevent this disease
Symptoms are: Swelling of the gland in front of one ear often followed, after a couple of days by swelling in front of the other ear.
- It is infectious from two or three days before the swelling appears until eight to ten days after that date
- If the pain is severe you should consult your doctor
- Immunisation can prevent this disease
In adults, diarrhoea is usually caused by a viral infection and is therefore unable to be treated directly. The symptoms can usually be eased by the traditional kaolin and morphine mixture or by medicines containing codeine.
Holiday diarrhoea is often due to bacteria. Again, kaolin and morphine can be taken.
Consult your doctor if the symptoms persist for more than a few days.
Diarrhoea in very young children and babies needs careful attention. Most babies have loose bowel action during their first six months due to their predominantly liquid diet. Sudden bouts of unusually watery diarrhoea should be treated by taking the baby off solids and feeding them a cooled solution of boiled water with a teaspoon of sugar and half a teaspoon of salt to the pint or water mixed with rehydrating sachets such as Dioralyte. If symptoms persist for more that 24 hours and are accompanied by vomiting or weakness you should consult your doctor.
Drink: encourage the patient to drink plenty of water.
When To Seek Medical Advice
If the diarrhoea or discomfort does not begin to settle within 48 hours.
If there is continuous pain rather than separate bouts of stomach cramp.
If diarrhoea occurs in an infant under six months
If an attack comes shortly after a visit to a foreign country.
If the patient suffers repeated attacks
If there is blood mixed with the stool